Berliner-Joyce XFJ

The Berliner-Joyce XFJ was a United States prototype biplane fighter aircraft that first flew in May 1930.
Designed by Berliner-Joyce Aircraft for the United States Navy, its lower wing, placed below the fuselage and just two feet above the ground, apparently gave it a tendency to ground loop when landing, and it was never ordered for production.
Berliner-Joyce XFJ
Berliner-Joyce had been formed in 1929, and had won a contract with the United States Army for the Berliner-Joyce P-16 aircraft.
At the same time, they submitted a similar design to the Navy, modified to meet the differing requirements, which included a metal-skinned semi-monocoque fuselage, shoulder-mounted upper wings and a lower wing underslung on cabane-type struts.
Berliner-Joyce XFJ
The prototype, XFJ-1, was sent to Anacostia for testing after its initial flights, where the ground-looping habit was noted, and eventually resulted in a landing accident, necessitating return and repair.
The company took the opportunity to add a Townsend ring engine cowling, and upgraded the engine from a 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340C to a 500-hp R-1340-92 Wasp.
Berliner-Joyce XFJ
This and other improvements boosted speed from 177 to 193 mph, and the Navy gave the reconstructed aircraft the designation XFJ-2.
However, improved performance came at the expense of stability, and the ground loop problem persisted, and there was no interest in continuing with this design.
Berliner-Joyce XFJ
Nevertheless, the prototype continued to be used for other tests for several years.
Specifications-
Crew: 2
Length: 20 ft 7 in (6.27 m)
Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m)
Height: 9 ft 10 in (3.00 m)
Wing area: 179 sq ft (16.6 m2)
Empty weight: 2,046 lb (928 kg)
Gross weight: 2,797 lb (1,269 kg)
Power plant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-C 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 450 hp (340 kW)
Propellers: 2-bladed propeller
Performance-
Maximum speed: 172 mph (277 km/h, 149 kn)
Range: 404 mi (650 km, 351 nmi)
Service ceiling: 23,800 ft (7,300 m)
Rate of climb: 1,282 ft/min (6.51 m/s)
Armament
Guns: 2x 0.300 in (7.6 mm) machine-guns
Berliner-Joyce XFJ
Credits-
American Combat Planes- Ray Wagner
U.S. naval fighters- Lloyd S Jones
Wikipedia

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