Avro 694 Lincoln

Specifications

1st Flight 1944

Crew: 7 or 8 (pilot, flight engineer/co-pilot, navigator, wireless operator, front gunner/bomb aimer, dorsal and rear gunners)

Length: 78 ft 3.5 in (23.863 m)

Wingspan: 120 ft (37 m)

Height: 17 ft 3.5 in (5.271 m)

Wing area: 1,421 sq ft (132.0 m2)

Empty weight: 44,188 lb (20,043 kg) equipped

Gross weight: 75,000 lb (34,019 kg)

Max takeoff weight: 82,000 lb (37,195 kg)

Fuel capacity: 3,580 imp gal (4,300 US gal; 16,300 l) in 6 wing tanks ; Oil 150 imp gal (180 US gal; 680 l) in four nacelle tanks

Powerplant: 4 × Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 or Packard-Merlin 68 V-12 liquid-cooled piston engines, 1,750 hp (1,300 kW) each

Other engines

Rolls-Royce Merlin 66

Rolls-Royce Merlin 102

Rolls-Royce Merlin 300

Rolls-Royce Derwent experimental

Rolls-Royce Tyne experimental

Bristol Phoebus experimental

Armstrong Siddeley Python experimental

Napier Naiad experimental

Napier Nomad experimental

Propellers: 4-bladed Rotol or de Havilland Hydromatic, 13 ft 0 in (3.96 m) diameter fully-feathering propellers

Performance

Maximum speed: 310 mph (500 km/h, 270 kn) at 18,300 ft (5,600 m)

Cruise speed: 215 mph (346 km/h, 187 kn) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)

Stall speed: 75 mph (121 km/h, 65 kn) flaps and undercarriage extended

Range: 2,800 mi (4,500 km, 2,400 nmi) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m) with 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) bomb load at 200 mph (170 kn; 320 km/h).

4,450 mi (3,870 nmi; 7,160 km) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m) with 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) bomb load at 200 mph (170 kn; 320 km/h).

2,240 mi (1,950 nmi; 3,600 km) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) with 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) bomb load at 260 mph (230 kn; 420 km/h).

3,560 mi (3,090 nmi; 5,730 km) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) with 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) bomb load at 260 mph (230 kn; 420 km/h).

Service ceiling: 30,500 ft (9,300 m)

Rate of climb: 800 ft/min (4.1 m/s)

Time to altitude: 20,000 ft (6,100 m) in 26 minutes 30 seconds

Wing loading: 52.77 lb/sq ft (257.6 kg/m2)

Power/mass: 12.2 lb/hp (7.4 kg/kW)

Armament

Guns: 2x 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning machine-guns in a Boulton Paul Type F nose turret, 2x 20 mm (0.787 in) Hispano MK.IV cannon or Hispano Mk.V cannon in a Bristol B.17 dorsal turret and 2x 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning machine-guns in a Boulton Paul Type D tail turret.

(Some aircraft fitted with a single 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning in a ventral position)

Bombs: Up to 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) of bombs; exceptionally 1 x 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam Deep Penetration bomb.

Avro

Variants

The Avro Type 694 Lincoln is a British four-engined heavy bomber, which first flew on 9 June 1944.

Developed from the Avro Lancaster, the first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V; these were renamed Lincoln I and II.

It was the last piston-engined bomber operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF).

Avro Type 694 – Prototypes to Air Ministry Specification 14/43, three-built

Lincoln I – Long-range bomber version for the RAF, Powered by four 1,750 hp (1,305 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 inline piston engines.

Lincoln II – Long-range bomber version for the RAF. Powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlin 66, 68A and 300 inline piston engines, Built by Avro, Armstrong-Whitworth and Vickers-Metropolitan.

Lincoln III – The Lincoln III was intended to be a maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare aircraft, The aircraft later became the Avro Shackleton.

Lincoln IV – Lincoln II converted to Merlin 85 power.

Lincoln U.5 – Lincoln II converted to drone aircraft, only two aircraft modified.

Lincoln Mk 15 (B Mk XV) – This designation was given to one aircraft, built by Victory Aircraft in Canada.

Lincoln Mk 30 – Long-range bomber version for the RAAF.

Lincoln Mk 30A – Long-range bomber version for the RAAF, fitted with a longer nose and Australian manufactured Merlin 102s.

Lincoln Mk 31 (GR 31) – General reconnaissance version of Mk.30 for the RAAF, fitted with a longer nose, Four Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 or 1,650 h.p. Merlin 102 powerplants.

Lincoln MR 31 – Anti-submarine warfare/maritime reconnaissance version of Mk 31 for the RAAF.

Avro 695 Lincolnian – Transport derivative similar to the Avro Lancastrian

Lincoln ASR.3. – Initial designation of the Avro Shackleton, which was based on the Lincoln.

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