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Yakovlev UT-3

The Yakovlev UT-3, originally designated as the AIR-17 and later renamed Ya-17, was an aircraft developed by Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev for the Soviet Air Force (VVS).

This twin-engine, low-wing monoplane was specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Soviet Air Force.

The UT-3 aircraft was initially designed to fulfill the role of a training aircraft for pilots of multi-engine aircraft, as well as for training air gunners, bomb aimers, navigators, and radio operators.

Its airframe was predominantly constructed using wood and fabric-covered mild steel tubing.

The prototype of the UT-3 was equipped with imported French Renault 6Q-01 220 hp (160 kW) six-cylinder inline engines, but it is possible that the production models utilized the Voronezh MV-6, a Soviet-built replica of the Bengali 6 engine.

In 1938, extensive testing was conducted on the UT-3, leading to its approval for production under the same designation.

While the prototype was armed with two 7.62 mm (0.300 in) ShKAS machine guns and had racks to accommodate four FAB 50 bombs, the production version was stripped of its weaponry and presented a more austere configuration.

The production of the UT-3 was initiated in 1940 at two factories, namely No. 135 in Leningrad and No. 272 in Kazan.

However, due to a strategic decision made by the VVS high command, which favoured the use of modified multi-engine combat aircraft with dual control for training purposes, only a limited number of approximately thirty UT-3 aircraft were ultimately manufactured before further orders were cancelled.
(Samolyet No.17, S-17, Ya-17, UT-3 or M-17)
Prototype three-seat twin-engined bomber-trainer.
Powered by two 220 hp (160 kW) Renault 6Q-01 engines driving Ratier 1363 variable pitch propellers.
UT-3 2MV-6 (3-seat)
Initial production of the armed three seat bomber trainer, powered by two Voronezh MV-6 engines driving AV-3 variable-pitch propellers.
Only one aircraft built, of ten ordered, due to poor performance and stability.
UT-3 2MV-6 (2-seat)
Following the poor results from the 3-seat aircraft’s flight tests, the aircraft was re-designed as a two-seat pilot trainer.
Nine aircraft were built and sent to service units for testing, with poor results due to design faults and poor manufacturing standards.
Production was transferred to GAZ-47.
UT-3 2MV-6 (2-seat GAZ-47)
At GAZ-47 changes were made to address the short-comings revealed in the service tests, which were only partly successful.
Only eight aircraft were built to this standard.
UT-3 ‘standard setter for 1941’
(S-17A, Ya-17, UT-3 2MV-6A or UT-3M)

Optimised as a conversion trainer, the instructor sat offset to starboard behind the trainee, who sat offset to port, under a common canopy.
The undercarriage was now fixed, and power was supplied by 2x 220 hp (160 kW) Voronezh MV-6A engines, mounted on extended engine mounts to retain the centre of gravity in the safe zone, one aircraft built.
UT-3 with MG-31F engines
A projected version powered by 2x 350 hp (260 kW) Kossov MG-31F 9-cylinder radial engines, not built.
UT-3 ‘standard setter no.2
The standard setter no.1 fitted with twin fins and rudders and sweptback outer wing panels, not built.
(Dive bomber trainer)
A projected dive bomber trainer to have been fitted with dive brakes under the wings, not built.
(S-19, AIR-19)
A civil transport derivative of the UT-3 using the wings, tail, undercarriage and engines of the UT-3 married to a new fuselage with a two-crew cockpit and cabin with sets for five passengers, one built.
UT-3 2MV6A
10.83 m (35 ft 6 in)
15 m (49 ft 3 in)
Wing area
33.42 m2 (359.7 sq ft)
Empty weight
2,042 kg (4,502 lb)
Max take-off weight
2,627 kg (5,792 lb)
Fuel capacity
350 kg (770 lb) fuel, 32 kg (71 lb) oil
2 × Voronezh MV-6 6-cylinder inverted air-cooled in-line piston engines,
160 kW (220 hp) each
2-bladed AV-3
Maximum speed
260 km/h (160 mph, 140 kn)
Landing speed
95 km/h (59 mph; 51 kn)
1,050 km (650 mi, 570 nmi)
Service ceiling
6,200 m (20,300 ft)
Take-off run
245 m (804 ft)
Landing run
115 m (377 ft)
Yakovlev Aircraft Since 1924 – Bill Gunston & Yefim Gordon.
OKB Yakovlev, A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft-Yefim Gordon, Dmitriy Komissarov & Sergey Komissarov.
Soviet Aircrafts Illustrated-A.S.Yakovlev.
The History of Soviet Aircraft from 1918-Vaclav Nemecek.
Soviet AF Fighter Colours 1941-45-Erik Pilaeskii.
Soviet Combat Aircraft of the Second World War, Vol 1, Single Engined Fighters-Yefim Gordon and Dmitri Khazanov.
Early Soviet Jet Fighters, The1940s and early 50s-Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Secret Projects, Fighters Since 1945-Tony Buttler & Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Secret Projects, Bombers Since 1945-Tony Buttler & Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Aircraft of Today-Nico Sgariato.
Modern Soviet Fighters-Mike Spick.

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