Close this search box.

Yakovlev UT-1

The Yakovlev UT-1 served as a solitary pilot training aircraft for the Soviet Air Force during the period from 1937 to the late 1940s.

The Yakovlev UT-1, an advanced trainer and aerobatic aircraft, was meticulously crafted by a team under the guidance of Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev.

In early 1936, the inaugural prototype, known as the AIR-14, took to the skies.

This compact monoplane boasted a low-wing design, a steadfast tailwheel undercarriage, and a fuselage constructed from welded steel.

Its wings, on the other hand, were skilfully fashioned from wood.

Following several modifications, the AIR-14 was approved for manufacturing.

One of the enhancements included replacing the 75 kW (100 hp) Shvetsov M-11 radial engine with the more potent 86 kW (115 hp) M-11G.

The aircraft was designated as UT-1, intended for primary and advanced training, but it was deemed unsuitable for primary training despite its designation.

The UT-1 served as a crucial link between the UT-2 and more advanced fighter planes, such as the I-16.

Its challenging flight characteristics demanded precise piloting, making it an ideal intermediate aircraft for pilots transitioning from basic trainers to the more manoeuvrable yet difficult-to-fly I-16.

In 1939, the plane underwent modifications that involved moving the engine 26 cm (10 in) forward, resulting in improved handling.

The 112 kW (150 hp) M-11E engine was also utilized during production.

Soviet pilots achieved several records with the UT-1, including its floatplane variant, before the onset of World War II.

A total of 1,241 aircraft were constructed between December 1936 and 1940.

From 1941 onwards, the UT-1 aircraft played a significant role in reconnaissance during World War II.

As the war progressed, some of these aircraft were repurposed as combat machines by equipping them with underwing machine guns or unguided rockets.

In February 1942, approximately 50 UT-1 planes underwent modifications in workshops to become improvised ground-attack planes known as UT-1B (УТ-1б).

These modified aircraft were equipped with two machine guns and two to four rockets.

They were subsequently deployed in the aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet, specifically in Sevastopol and Caucasus.

However, by December 1942, the surviving UT-1B planes were disarmed.
Most Common Variants
Prototype of UT-1
UT-1 with a 104 kW (140 hp) Renault Bengali 4 inline engine and closed canopy, retractable undercarriage.
AIR-21 (Ya-21, UT-21)
UT-1 with 164 kW (220 hp) Renault Bengali 6 engine, tested in 1938-39, fixed undercarriage.
Wartime attack version with two ShKAS machine guns and two or four RS-82 rockets.
(UT-1 For tests at TsAGI (sometimes confused with AIR-15, which was not a variant of UT-1).
UT-1 Floatplane
Powered by the M-11Ye engine which later became standard in the majority of UT-1’s.
UT-1 with M-11Ye
5.75 m (18 ft 10 in)
7.3 m (23 ft 11 in)
2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)
Wing area
9.58 m2 (103 sq ft)
Empty weight
429 kg (946 lb)
Gross weight
597.5 kg (1,317.5 lb)
1 × Shvetsov M-11Ye,
111 kW (150 hp)
Maximum speed
257 km/h (160 mph, 140 kn)
670 km (419 mi, 364 nmi)
Service ceiling
7,120 m (23,360 ft)
Rate of climb
7.4 m/s (1,457 ft/min)
2 x 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns (Attack version)
2 or 4 x RS-82 (Raketniy Snaryad – rocket shell) (Attack Version)
Yakovlev Aircraft Since 1924 – Bill Gunston & Yefim Gordon.
OKB Yakovlev, A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft-Yefim Gordon, Dmitriy Komissarov & Sergey Komissarov.
Soviet Aircrafts Illustrated-A.S.Yakovlev.
The History of Soviet Aircraft from 1918-Vaclav Nemecek.
Soviet AF Fighter Colours 1941-45-Erik Pilaeskii.
Soviet Combat Aircraft of the Second World War, Vol 1, Single Engined Fighters-Yefim Gordon and Dmitri Khazanov.
Early Soviet Jet Fighters, The1940s and early 50s-Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Secret Projects, Fighters Since 1945-Tony Buttler & Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Secret Projects, Bombers Since 1945-Tony Buttler & Yefim Gordon.
Soviet Aircraft of Today-Nico Sgariato.
Modern Soviet Fighters-Mike Spick.

Share on facebook