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PWS-12 & PWS-14

The PWS-12 was a biplane trainer.

It entered production as the PWS-14.

The PWS-12 was a single-engined two-seat training biplane, fit also for aerobatics, designed in 1928 by A. Grzędzielewski and August Bobek-Zdaniewski at the PWS factory.

The design shared similar parts, including fuselage and engine, as a high-wing trainer fighter plane PWS-11, developed at the same time.

The main difference was the addition of a lower wing.

It was powered by a nose-mounted Skoda-built version of the Wright J-5 Whirlwind radial engine.

Two prototypes and an airframe for static tests were ordered by the Aviation Department of the War Ministry in February 1928 (along with the PWS-11 prototypes).

The first prototype was flown by Franciszek Rutkowski in November 1929.

It was later improved – among others, a Townend ring replaced NACA cowling, and it was fitted with N-shaped struts between wings instead of perpendicular struts.

The second improved prototype was flown on 18 November 1930, and designated PWS-12bis.

Testing was successful and a production order for 20 aircraft was placed by the Polish Air Force.

In a meantime, the factory developed improved model PWS-14, featuring a change from wooden to a steel-tube fuselage, strengthened wings and other improvements, like a door in first cockpit’s side.

The War Ministry ordered a production of one PWS-14 and a similar modification of the series being in production.

It caused some financial problems for the factory, since a production of PWS-12s had already started.

As a result, the factory delivered in 1932 a series of 20 PWS-14, marked officially as PWS-12.

A further development of PWS-14 was PWS-16, and then PWS-26.



Prototype of wooden construction.


Second improved prototype


Improved model of mixed construction

(Aircraft delivered to the Air Force were marked as PWS-12)







6.9 m (22 ft 8 in)


9.0 m (29 ft 6.25 in)


2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)

Wing area

25 m2 (270 sq ft)

Empty weight

775 kg (1,709 lb)

Gross weight

1,100 kg (2,425 lb)


1 × Skoda-Wright J-5A Whirlwind radial engine,

164 kW (220 hp)


Maximum speed

190 km/h (118 mph, 103 kn)

Cruise speed

175 km/h (109 mph, 94 kn)


640 km (400 mi, 350 nmi)

Service ceiling

4,500 m (14,800 ft)

Rate of climb

4.3 m/s (850 ft/min).



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