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Mitsubishi 2MR

The Mitsubishi 2MR was a Japanese carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft of the 1920s, also known as the Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft or the C1M in the Navy’s short designation scheme.

Designed for Mitsubishi by the British aircraft designer Herbert Smith, the 2MR was used by the Imperial Japanese Navy through the 1920s and 1930s.

In 1921, the Imperial Japanese Navy placed an order with the newly established aircraft subsidiary of Mitsubishi for three types of carrier-based aircraft, consisting of a fighter, reconnaissance aircraft and torpedo bomber.

Mitsubishi hired a team of British engineers led by Herbert Smith, formerly of Sopwith Aviation Company to design these aircraft.

Smith’s design for a reconnaissance aircraft, designated by Mitsubishi the 2MR, first flew on 12 January 1922.

The 2MR was of similar layout to the contemporary 1MF fighter (i.e., a single-bay wooden biplane) but scaled up to accommodate a two-man crew and was powered by a similar license-built Hispano-Suiza engine.

After successful testing, the 2MR was adopted by the Japanese Navy as the Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft (Type 10 referring to the year of ordering of 1921, the tenth year of the Taishō period), with production continuing until 1930, a total of 159 being built.

In 1930, Mitsubishi developed two aircraft to meet an Imperial Japanese Army Air Force requirement for a short-range reconnaissance aircraft, the 2MR7, a biplane developed from the 2MR and the B2M torpedo bomber and the 2MR8 parasol monoplane, with the 2MR8 being successful and ordered into service as the Type 92 Reconnaissance Aircraft.

This aircraft was unrelated to the Navy 2MR aircraft.



Initial version, Navy designation Type 10-1.

Fitted with car type honeycomb radiator at front of engine.


Revised version, with original car type radiator replaced by Lamblin radiator beneath fuselage and relocated pilot’s seat, Type 10-2.


Increased tail area, radiator moved forward.


Definitive carrier reconnaissance version.

Rounded wingtips and re-located pilot’s seat.


Improved prototype of 1928 for reconnaissance aircraft for both Navy and Army.

One only built.


Intermediate trainer version of 2MR1.


Intermediate trainer, revised tail surfaces.


Intermediate trainer version of 2MR2.


Trainer version of 2MR3.


Further revised intermediate trainer.

Radiators relocated under wings.


Final Trainer version.

Fitted with night flying equipment and floatation gear.

R-1.2 Trainer

Civil trainer conversion of Type 10-1.

R-2.2 Trainer

Civil trainer conversion of Type 10-2.

Mitsubishi R-4

Conversion of 2MR4 for civil survey operations with enclosed cockpit.

Two converted.


Short-range reconnaissance biplane for Japanese Army – based on 2MR and B2M


Parasol monoplane reconnaissance aircraft for Army – unrelated to the 2MR biplane.





7.93 m (26 ft 0 in)


12.04 m (39 ft 6 in)

1x 12.75 m (42 ft) (2MR8)

Wing area

37.7 m2 (406 sq ft)

Empty weight

980 kg (2,161 lb)

Gross weight

1,320 kg (2,910 lb)

1,770 kg (3,902 lb) (2MR8)


1 × Mitsubishi Hi,

V-8 water-cooled piston engine,

224 kW (300 hp)

1x 354 kW (475 hp)

Mitsubishi Army Type 92,

400hp Air Cooled Radial (2MR8)


Maximum speed

204 km/h (127 mph, 110 kn)

220 km/h (140 mph; 120 kn) (2MR8)


3½ hours

Time to altitude

3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 17 minutes

Wing loading

35 kg/m2 (7.2 lb/sq ft)


0.17 kW/kg (0.10 hp/lb)



2 fixed forward firing 7.7 mm machine guns


two flexibly mounted 7.7 mm machine guns in observer’s cockpit


3x 30 kg (66 lb) bombs.



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