Kalinin K-12

The Kalinin K-12 was a proof-of-concept Ukrainian aircraft developed in the 1930s by the Kalinin Design Bureau during the era of the Soviet Union.

The K-12 was intended as a tailless bomber aircraft.

Also called the Kalinin BS-2 or the Zhar-Ptitsa Firebird, it featured welded steel-tube construction with fabric covering, as well as a dummy nose and tail turrets.

The K-12 was painted in a garish colour scheme representing a bird.

A subscale glider to test the K-12’s features flew in 1934, piloted by V.O. Borisov.

The K-12 flew in autumn 1936 and was demonstrated at Tushino in August 1937.

The full-size K-12, however, was cancelled after Konstantin Kalinin was arrested and executed as an enemy of the state.





8 m (26 ft 3 in)


18 m (59 ft 1 in)

Wing area

72.75 m2 (783.1 sq ft)

Empty weight

3,070 kg (6,768 lb)

Gross weight

4,200 kg (9,259 lb)


2 × Shvetsov M-22 9-cylinder air cooled radial engine,

324 kW (435 hp) each


2-bladed metal variable-pitch propeller


Maximum speed

240 km/h (150 mph, 130 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)

Service ceiling

7,170 m (23,520 ft)

Take-off distance

700 m (2,300 ft)

Landing distance

300 m (980 ft)



2 x 7.62 mm (0.300 in) ShKAS machine guns in nose and tail turrets.


500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb load in a vertical rack.



Share on facebook