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Bréguet Leviathan

The Bréguet Leviathan was a family of large all-metal biplane aircraft built in France in the early 1920s.

The Bréguet XX and XXI were notable for being powered by Bréguet-Bugatti multiple engines, in two forms.

The Bréguet XXI was powered by individual Bréguet-Bugatti U.16 engines initially and Lorraine-Dietrich 8b engines in tandem later.

The Bréguet XXII had accommodation for about twenty passengers and was destroyed during a 1923 transport aircraft competition.

Development of all three aircraft types was halted largely due to technical issues with power-plants and aircraft structure.

In 1922 Bréguet Aviation flew their all-metal Bréguet 19, a bomber/reconnaissance aircraft and the Bréguet XX.

The latter was another all-metal biplane but much larger and powered by a Bréguet-Bugatti 32A Quadimoteur Type A, this was two Bréguet-Bugatti U.24 engines mounted in tandem on a cradle, driving a single output shaft, for the first time on 20 June 1922.

The engine assembly was placed in the forward fuselage and drove the nose-mounted single propeller via a shaft running through the forward engine half’s cylinder banks from the combining gearbox between the two engine halves.

A bomber variant, the Bréguet XXI, was also built with limited success; the partially built fuselage was displayed at the 1921 Paris Aero Salon, clearly showing the installation of the Bréguet-Bugatti 32A Quadimoteur Type A engine.

The Bréguet XXI was later fitted with a Bréguet-Bugatti 32B Quadimoteur Type B, which grouped four 8-cylinder banks around a combining gearbox in an ‘H’ configuration.


 Bréguet XX Leviathan

(Bréguet 20 Leviathan)

A large all-Duralumin biplane airliner powered by a Bréguet-Bugatti 32A Quadimoteur Type A multi-engine, mounted inside the forward fuselage.

Bréguet XXI Leviathan

(Bréguet 21 Leviathan)

A bomber version of the Bréguet XX / XXII, powered initially by a Quadimoteur Type A multi-engine, but later fitted with a Bréguet-Bugatti 32B Quadimoteur Type B multi-engine, both mounted inside the forward fuselage.

Bréguet XXII Leviathan

(Bréguet 22 Leviathan)

A development of the Bréguet XX powered initially by two individual Bréguet-Bugatti U.16 engines mounted conventionally between the wings and later by four Lorraine-Dietrich 8B V-8 engines mounted in tandem between the wings.





25 including crew


14.016 m (46 ft 0 in)


25.538 m (83 ft 9 in)


5.135 m (16 ft 10 in)

Wing area

140 m2 (1,500 sq ft)

Empty weight

3,150 kg (6,945 lb)

Gross weight

6,400 kg (14,110 lb)

Fuel capacity

1,500 l (396 US gal; 330 imp gal)


2 × Bréguet-Bugatti U.16 U-16, (two straight-eight engines in parallel), water-cooled inline piston engines, 360 kW (480 hp) each


4-bladed fixed pitch propellers


Maximum speed

170 km/h (110 mph, 92 kn) at 2,000 m (6,600 ft)


1,100 km (680 mi, 590 nmi)

Service ceiling

4,000 m (13,000 ft)

Wing loading

46 kg/m2 (9.4 lb/sq ft)


0.1065 kW/kg (0.0648 hp/lb)

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