Breda Ba.88 Lynx

 

1st Flight 1936

The Breda Ba.88 Lynx was a ground-attack aircraft used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II.

Its streamlined design and retractable undercarriage were advanced for the time, and after its debut in 1937 the aircraft established several world speed records.

However, when military equipment was installed on production examples, problems of instability developed and the aeroplane’s general performance deteriorated.

Eventually its operational career was cut short, and the remaining Ba.88 airframes were used as fixed installations on airfields to mislead enemy reconnaissance.

It represented, perhaps, the most remarkable failure of any operational aircraft to see service in World War II.

Two Gruppi (Groups) were equipped with the Breda Ba.88 on June 1940, operating initially from Sardinia against the main airfield of Corsica, with 12 aircraft on 16 June 1940 and three on 19 June 1940.

The crews soon found that the Bredas were extremely underpowered and lacked agility, but the lack of fighter opposition resulted in them being able to perform their missions without losses.

Later, 64 aircraft became operational serving 7º Gruppo in the North African Theatre with 19º Gruppo stationed in Sardinia, but their performance remained extremely poor resulting in 7º Gruppo being grounded from the end of June until September, when the Italian offensive against British forces started.

Of three aircraft used, one was not even capable of taking off, and another could not turn and was forced to fly straight from their base at Castelvetrano to Sidi Rezegh.

With anti-sand filters fitted, a maximum level speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) was reported in some cases and several units were even unable to take off at all.

These machines were fitted with “Spezzoniera” Nardi dispensers with 119 2 kg (4 lb) bomblets, 1,000 rounds for the three 12.7 mm (0.5 in) machine guns and 500 rounds for the 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Bredas.

Although the weapons were not loaded to full capacity and the aircraft was lightened by eliminating the rear machine gun, observer, bombs and some fuel, lessening the weight did not substantially affect the aircraft’s performance.

By mid-November, just five months after the start of the war on 10 June 1940, most surviving Ba.88s had been phased out as bombers and stripped of useful equipment, and were scattered around operational airfields as decoys for attacking aircraft.

This was a degrading end for the new and theoretically powerful aircraft.

It forced the Regia Aeronautica to use totally outdated aircraft in North Africa, such as the Breda Ba.65 and Fiat C.R.32. As an additional problem, the Regia Aereonautica remained without any suitable heavy fighter, a notable weakness for a major air arm.

Despite its impressive world records and aggressive, slim shape, the Ba.88 was a failure and unable to undertake combat missions.

Its structure was too heavy, wing loading too high, and the engines were quite unreliable with insufficient power.

The Piaggio P.XI was quite powerful, but never reliable, leading also to the overall failure of the Reggiane Re.2000.

Hungary substituted the engines with similar ones for the first license-produced examples.

Three Ba.88s were modified by the Agusta plant in late 1942 to serve as ground-attack aircraft.

The Ba.88M had the wingspan increased by 2 meters (6 ft 6½ in) to alleviate wing-loading problems, and featured dive brakes, Fiat A.74 RC.38 engines, and a nose armament increased to four 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns.

Evaluated at Guidonia, they were delivered to the 103° Gruppo Autonomo Tuffatori at Lonate Pozzolo on 7 September 1943, the day before Italian Armistice.

Later they were evaluated by Luftwaffe pilots and that was the last heard of the aircraft.

Specifications

Crew: 2

Length: 10.79 m (35 ft 5 in)

Wingspan: 15.6 m (51 ft 2 in)

Height: 3.1 m (10 ft 2 in)

Wing area: 33.34 m2 (358.9 sq ft)

Empty weight: 4,650 kg (10,251 lb)

Max take-off weight: 6,750 kg (14,881 lb)

Power plant: 2 × Piaggio P.XI RC.40 Stella 14-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engines, 746 kW (1,000 hp) each for take-off

Propellers: 3-bladed variable-pitch propellers

Performance

Maximum speed: 490 km/h (300 mph, 260 kn) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft)

Range: 1,640 km (1,020 mi, 890 nmi)

Service ceiling: 8,000 m (26,000 ft)

Time to altitude: 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 7 minutes 30 seconds

Armament

Guns:

3 x fixed 12.7 mm (0.50 in) Breda-SAFAT machine-guns in the nose

1x manually aimed 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine-gun in the rear cockpit

Bombs: 3 x 200 kg (441 lb) bombs semi-recessed in the fuselage belly.

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