Avro Lincoln

1st Flight 1944

The Avro Type 694 Lincoln is a British four-engined heavy bomber, which first flew on 9 June 1944.

Developed from the Avro Lancaster, the first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V; these were renamed Lincoln I and II.

It was the last piston-engined bomber operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF).

Variants

Avro Type 694 – Prototypes to Air Ministry Specification 14/43, three-built

Lincoln I 

 Long-range bomber version for the RAF, Powered by four 1,750 hp (1,305 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 inline piston engines.

Lincoln II 

Long-range bomber version for the RAF. Powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlin 66, 68A and 300 inline piston engines, Built by Avro, Armstrong-Whitworth and Vickers-Metropolitan.

Lincoln III 

The Lincoln III was intended to be a maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare aircraft, The aircraft later became the Avro Shackleton.

Lincoln IV 

Lincoln II converted to Merlin 85 power.

Lincoln U.5 

Lincoln II converted to drone aircraft, only two aircraft modified.

Lincoln Mk 15 (B Mk XV) 

This designation was given to one aircraft, built by Victory Aircraft in Canada.

Lincoln Mk 30 

Long-range bomber version for the RAAF.

Lincoln Mk 30A 

Long-range bomber version for the RAAF, fitted with a longer nose and Australian manufactured Merlin 102s.

Lincoln Mk 31 (GR 31) 

General reconnaissance version of Mk.30 for the RAAF, fitted with a longer nose, Four Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 or 1,650 h.p. Merlin 102 powerplants.

Lincoln MR 31 

Anti-submarine warfare/maritime reconnaissance version of Mk 31 for the RAAF.

Avro 695 Lincolnian 

Transport derivative similar to the Avro Lancastrian

Lincoln ASR.3. 

Initial designation of the Avro Shackleton, which was based on the Lincoln.

Specifications

Crew: 7 or 8 

Length: 78 ft 3.5 in (23.863 m)

Wingspan: 120 ft (37 m)

Height: 17 ft 3.5 in (5.271 m)

Wing area: 1,421 sq ft (132.0 m2)

Empty weight: 44,188 lb (20,043 kg) equipped

Gross weight: 75,000 lb (34,019 kg)

Max take-off weight: 82,000 lb (37,195 kg)

Fuel capacity: 3,580 imp gal (4,300 US gal; 16,300 l) in 6 wing tanks ; Oil 150 imp gal (180 US gal; 680 l) in four nacelle tanks

Powerplant

4 × Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 or Packard-Merlin 68 V-12 liquid-cooled piston engines, 1,750 hp (1,300 kW) each

Other engines

Rolls-Royce Merlin 66

Rolls-Royce Merlin 102

Rolls-Royce Merlin 300

Rolls-Royce Derwent experimental

Rolls-Royce Tyne experimental

Bristol Phoebus experimental

Armstrong Siddeley Python experimental

Napier Naiad experimental

Napier Nomad experimental

Propellers: 4-bladed Rotol or de Havilland Hydromatic, 13 ft 0 in (3.96 m) diameter fully-feathering propellers

Performance

Maximum speed: 310 mph (500 km/h, 270 kn) at 18,300 ft (5,600 m)

Cruise speed: 215 mph (346 km/h, 187 kn) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)

Stall speed: 75 mph (121 km/h, 65 kn) flaps and undercarriage extended

Range: 2,800 mi (4,500 km, 2,400 nmi) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m) with 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) bomb load at 200 mph (170 kn; 320 km/h).

4,450 mi (3,870 nmi; 7,160 km) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m) with 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) bomb load at 200 mph (170 kn; 320 km/h).

2,240 mi (1,950 nmi; 3,600 km) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) with 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) bomb load at 260 mph (230 kn; 420 km/h).

3,560 mi (3,090 nmi; 5,730 km) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) with 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) bomb load at 260 mph (230 kn; 420 km/h).

Service ceiling: 30,500 ft (9,300 m)

Rate of climb: 800 ft/min (4.1 m/s)

Time to altitude: 20,000 ft (6,100 m) in 26 minutes 30 seconds

Wing loading: 52.77 lb/sq ft (257.6 kg/m2)

Power/mass: 12.2 lb/hp (7.4 kg/kW)

Armament

Guns: 2x 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning machine-guns in a Boulton Paul Type F nose turret, 2x 20 mm (0.787 in) Hispano MK.IV cannon or Hispano Mk.V cannon in a Bristol B.17 dorsal turret and 2x 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning machine-guns in a Boulton Paul Type D tail turret.

(Some aircraft fitted with a single 0.5 in (12.70 mm) M2 Browning in a ventral position)

Bombs: Up to 14,000 lb (6,400 kg) of bombs; exceptionally 1 x 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam Deep Penetration bomb.

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