Avro 504

1st Flight 1913

The Avro 504 was a First World War biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others.

Production during the war totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in any military capacity during the First World War.

More than 10,000 were built from 1913 until production ended in 1932.

Variants

504

80 hp (60 kW) Gnome Lambda engine, Original model

504A: – Modified with smaller ailerons and broader struts. 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504B

Version for RNAS with larger fin. 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome or Le Rhône engine.

504C 

Single-seat anti-zeppelin aircraft for the RNAS.

The 504C was fitted with an extra fuel tank, in place of the observer.

504D 

Single-seat anti-zeppelin aircraft for the Royal Flying Corps, Six built.

504E 

100 hp (75 kW) Gnome Monosoupape engine, Ten built.

504F 

75 hp (56 kW) Rolls-Royce Hawk engine, One built.

504G 

80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504H 

Used for catapult trials. 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504J 

Used as a trainer.

100 hp (75 kW) Gnome or 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhône engine.

504K 

Two-seat training aircraft.

The 504K had a universal mount to take different engines.

Single-seat fighter conversion used for anti-zeppelin work.

Several were assembled in Australia by Australian Aircraft & Engineering.

130 hp (97 kW) Clerget 9B, 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome Monosoupape or 110 hp (82 kW) Le Rhône 9J engines.

504K Mk.II 

Hybrid trainer based on 504K fuselage with 504N undercarriage and wings and powered by rotary engine.

Built under licence in Mexico as Avro Anahuac.

504L 

Floatplane version.

150 hp (110 kW) Bentley BR1, 130 hp (97 kW) Clerget or 110 hp (82 kW) Le Rhône engines.

504M 

Three-seat cabin biplane.

Only one was ever built, 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome engine.

504N 

Two-seat training aircraft.

Redesigned postwar trainer for RAF with 160 hp (120 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Lynx engine, 598 built.

504O 

Floatplane version of 504N.

First aircraft to fly above the Arctic Circle in 1923 Oxford Expedition.

504Q 

Three-seat cabin biplane.

The 504Q was built for the Oxford University Arctic Expedition.

Only one was ever built, powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Lynx engine.

504R Gosport 

Reworked trainer with revised, lightweight structure.

Five prototypes flown 1926 to 1927 with various engines (100 hp/75 kW Gnome Monosoupape, 100 hp/75 kW) Avro Alpha, (140 hp/104 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major and (150 hp/110 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose), with the Mongoose chosen for production aircraft.

Ten were sold to Argentina, with 100 more built by FMA under licence in Argentina.

Twelve were exported to Estonia, remaining in service until 1940, and an unknown number to Peru.

504S 

Two-seat training aircraft, Built under licence in Japan by Nakajima.

Yokosuka K2Y1 

Japanese version of the Avro 504N, given the long designation Yokosuka Navy Type 3 Primary Trainer, powered by a 130 hp (97 kW) Mitsubishi-built Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose radial piston engine, 104 built.

Yokosuka K2Y2 

Improved version of the K2Y1, powered by a 160 hp (120 kW) Gasuden Jimpu 2 radial piston engine.

360 built (K2Y1 and K2Y2).

Watanabe built aircraft were given the long designation Watanabe Navy Type 3-2 Land-based Primary Trainer.

U-1 (Uchebnyi – 1) Avrushka 

Russian copy of the 504K.

Over 700 built.

MU-1 (Morskoy Uchebnyi – 1) 

Russian seaplane version.

Orlogsværftet Flyvemaskineværksted LB.I 

Danish production at the Royal Naval Dockyard (Orlogsværftet)

Specifications

Crew: 2

Length: 29 ft 5 in (8.97 m)

Wingspan: 36 ft 0 in (10.97 m)

Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.18 m)

Wing area: 330 sq ft (31 m2)

Empty weight: 1,231 lb (558 kg)

Gross weight: 1,829 lb (830 kg)

Fuel capacity: 25.5 imp gal (31 US gal; 116 l) fuel ; 6 imp gal (7 US gal; 27 l) castor oil

Powerplant

1 × Le Rhône 9J 9-cylinder air-cooled rotary piston engine, 110 hp (82 kW)

Propellers: 2-bladed Avro fixed-pitch wooden propeller, 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m) diameter 8 ft 8 in (2.6 m) pitch

Performance

Maximum speed: 95 mph (153 km/h, 83 kn) at sea level

87 mph (76 kn; 140 km/h) at 8,000 ft (2,438 m)

85 mph (74 kn; 137 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,048 m)

Cruise speed: 74 mph (119 km/h, 64 kn) at 75% power at 8,000 ft (2,438 m)

71 mph (62 kn; 114 km/h) at 75% power at 10,000 ft (3,048 m)

Stall speed: 40 mph (64 km/h, 35 kn)

Range: 250 mi (400 km, 220 nmi)

Endurance

2 hours at sea level at maximum speed

2 hours 8 minutes at 8,000 ft (2,438 m) at maximum speed

3 hours at 10,000 ft (3,048 m) at maximum speed

3 hours 42 minutes at 8,000 ft (2,438 m) at cruise speed

4 hours 15 minutes at 10,000 ft (3,048 m) at cruise speed

Service ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,900 m)

Rate of climb: 700 ft/min (3.6 m/s)

Time to altitude

3,500 ft (1,067 m) in 5 minutes

8,000 ft (2,438 m) in 10 minutes

10,000 ft (3,048 m) in 16 minutes

Wing loading: 5.54 lb/sq ft (27.0 kg/m2)

Power/mass: 0.06 hp/lb (0.099 kW/kg)

Armament

1 fixed .303 Lewis atop upper wing (single-seat night fighter variants).

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