It was designed during the 1960s as a replacement for the Aero L-29 Delfín as a principal training aircraft.
It was the first trainer aircraft to be equipped with a turbofan power plant.
The type was exported to a wide range of countries as a military trainer.
The L-39 Albatros later served as the basis for the updated L-59 Super Albatros, as well as the L-139.
A further development of the design, designated as the L-159 ALCA, entered production in 1997.
To date, more than 2,800 L-39s have served with over 30 air forces around the world.
The Albatros is the most widely used jet trainer in the world, in addition to performing basic and advanced pilot training, it has also flown combat missions in a light-attack role.
L-39X-01 – X-07
Five prototypes plus two static test airframes.
Standard basic trainer for Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and export.
Originally designated L-39, but renamed L-39C when later variants appeared.
Two pylons under wing.
Approximately 2,260 built.
Slovak upgraded C version.
Ukrainian upgraded C version with AI-25TLSh engines.
The conversion is carried out by Odesaviaremservis and the first plane was complete in 2009.
The upgrade of a further 7 L-39C’s was planned.
Only six L-39C were converted into L-39M1 by 2014
Single-seat target tug version for Czechoslovakia.
Equipped to tow KT-04 target on 1,700 m (5,600 ft) cable.
Prototype plus eight production aircraft built.
Interim weapon trainer variant for export.
Four pylons stressed for 500 kg (1,100 lb) (inboard) and 250 kg (550 lb) (outboard), with total external load of 1,150 kg (2,500 lb).
First flew 25 June 1975, with initial deliveries to Iraq in 1977.
Significantly upgraded L-39ZO for armed training and light attack, employing sturdier landing gear, a higher payload (total 1,290 kg (2,844 lb) and notably provision for a GSh-23L 23-mm twin barrelled canon attached in a conformal pod under the pilots’ compartment, having a 150-round magazine within the airframe.
Outer pylons wired to carry K-13 or R-60 air-to-air missiles.
Two prototypes, with first flying on 29 September 1976. 208 aircraft delivered.
Slovak upgraded ZA version.
Thai version of L-39ZA with Elbit avionics.
The Aero L-39MS is a second generation military trainer aircraft developed from the firm’s earlier L-39.
Compared to its predecessor, it featured a strengthened fuselage, longer nose, a vastly updated cockpit, and a more powerful (21.6 kN (4,850 lbf)) Lotarev DV-2 engine, allowing operation at higher weights and speeds (max speed 872 km/h (542 mph).
First flight on 30 September 1986.
It was later designated as the Aero L-59.
L-139 Albatros 2000
Revised version with western avionics and 17.99 kN (4,045 lbf) Garrett TFE731-4-1T engine.
Single prototype built.
Further modernized advanced trainer/combat aircraft with more modern, Western avionics and Honeywell/ITEC F124 engine.
Modernised and upgraded version with Williams FJ44 engine, improved fuel system and avionics.
Skyleader UL-39 Albi
A carbon-fibre ducted-fan powered scale variant first flown in the Czech Republic on 4 April 2016.
Standard production version.
Export version for Egypt.
49 x L-59s for Egyptian Air Force.
Export version for Tunisia.
12 x L-59s for Tunisian Air Force.
The L-159A ALCA is a single-seat light multi-role combat aircraft designed for a variety of air-to-air, air-to-ground and reconnaissance missions.
The aircraft is equipped with a multi-mode Doppler Grifo-L radar, for all-weather, day and night operations.
It can carry a wide range of NATO standard stores including air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles and laser guided bombs.
The L-159A is in operational service with the Czech and Iraqi air forces.
There are two different configurations being used by the Czech Air Force, the Honeywell 4×4 inch MFDs or the Vdot 5×6.7 inch MFDs are the options.
Avionic upgrades are designed and developed by V-Dot Systems Inc.
The L-159E ALCA is the export designation of L-159A in service with Draken International.
Combat-capable variant first unveiled at the Farnborough Airshow on 16 July 2018.
Developed in collaboration with Israel Aerospace Industries and powered by a Honeywell F124-GA-100 engine.
The aircraft is pitched for the U.S. Air Force Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance program.
The L-159B, also known as L-159B Albatros II, is a two-seat version primarily designed for Advanced and Operational/Lead-In Fighter Training.
The L-159B configuration can also be tailored to customer specific requirements and adapted to needs of basic training as well as combat missions including air-to-ground, patrol and reconnaissance missions.
The only prototype has been rebuilt by Aero Vodochody into L-159T2X demonstrator.
The aircraft’s designation was changed on 14 December 2015.
The L-159T1 is a two-seat trainer derivative used by the Czech and Iraqi Air Force.
All L-159T1s are modified L-159A airframes taken from storage.
Unlike L-159A, they have just one MFD in each cockpit and no radar.
L-159T1+ aircraft are characterized by an upgraded mission system, avionics and newly installed Grifo-L radar, offering the same combat capability as the single-seat L-159A.
The L-159T2 is a two-seat trainer with full combat capability converted from stored L-159A airframes.
Compared to the L-159T1, it has a higher proportion of newly manufactured components and a Grifo-L radar installed.
Instead of mirroring the instruments to the rear seat, the new two-seater will have independent instruments interchangeable with the L-159A while using the same software configuration.